Museum of Fine Arts in Budapest. Searching for tarot or tarocchi will give you access to these sheets, and zooming permits to get very high resolution images. As example I show you hereunder the trump number XIII in full resolution.
The cards are numbered and the order is from Ferrara, with Justice numbered XX, between the Angel (XVIIII) and the World (XXI). The Trump cards are all from the same deck, the suit cards (some colored, some not) are from five different decks.
The Rosenwald sheet
Three sheets are conserved in the National Library of Arts in Washington. They represent 72 cards, with respect to a regular Tarot deck, 6 cards are missing, the Fool, the four Tens and the Queen of swords. The problem is that the two sheets with only suit cards are clearly from a different deck than the above illustrated sheet with the Trump cards. Apparently there is a second copy of this sheet conserved in the playing card Museum of Leinfelden in Germany. From this Leinfelden sheet, at my best knowledge, no images are circulating on the web.The order of the trumps is close to the Bolognese order, with the three virtues placed together. Death is the fourteenth card, but cards after the Old Man (Father Time, the Hermit, the Hunchback) are not numbered. The numbering itself has many errors. The two sheets with the suit cards may represend a seperate complete game of 48 cards. Every suit has nine numbers (the Ten is missing), the Page, the Knight and the King. The Pages are girls for the suits of Coins and Cups and boys for the suits of Swords and Batons. All four knights are represented by Centaurs, half horse and half human. The one of Coins is identical to the one of Coins of the Bolognese Tarocchino deck.
The Rothschild sheets
The last sheet I want to show is the so called Rothschild sheet. In fact, there are two sheets of 6 cards, both conserved in Paris but on different places. The images are typical for the Bologna type style Tarocchini decks. Here below the same cards of a very similar Tarot of Bologna deck, dated to around 1600 and conserved in Paris in the French National Library. High resolution copies of these cards can be found on the address http://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/btv1b105109607.
Around 1900, during restauration works in the Milanese Sforza castle 51 cards and card fragments have been found on the bottom of a well in the castle. The construction of the castle has started around 1450 on the same spot as the destroyed Visconti castle. The card fragments have been dated to the 16th up to the 18th Century. There is a detailed description of the cards in the Encyclopedia of Tarot of Kaplan, and the image here at right comes from this book. The form of the design on the card is exactly the same (but mirrored) with respect to the Marseille type cards. On the card we see the date 1499. The card is attributed to Paoline da Castelletto (on the card we can see PAVLINVS CASTEL O), a card maker active at least between 1494 and 1513 in Milan). One other card fragment, a King of Cups, is also dated to the 16th Century.
There is no evidence that the Two of Coins is a Tarot card. In fact, the card is smaller than the typical size of Tarot cards, so it might as well belong to a normal deck. While in Italy the suit cards of the Tarot are identical in design to normal playing cards, it is only possible to differentiate them based on the size or when trump cards are actually present.
In France there are many references to cards and Tarot dating to the 16th Century, but very few cards survived. The only deck where we have some cards left is the deck of Catelin Geoffroy (1557). 12 Trumps and 26 suit cards survived, of which 5 court and 21 pip cards. The pip cards are a mirrored copy of the German Virgil Solis deck (1544). Images of both decks can be found here. Actually they are conserved in the Museum für Angewandte Kunst in Frankfurt am Main (Germany). The suit symbols are animals (lions, monkeys, parrots and pawns) and every suit has only three court cards. The trump cards are numbered, not named, and they follow the order of the Marseille Tarot. The images are much more dynamic and we have no earlier cards who look like this deck. Examples of the Trump cards, the cards numbered VII, XII and XVI. The image on card 16 has nothing to to with the traditional images of a Tower, a Traitor or Lightning that we can find on other decks, with the Devil clearly present. The image of the Hanged Man in profile is later used on a Swiss version of the Marseille Tarot.
The last deck of the transition period that I want to present you is the Tarot of Paris. The deck has been created in the early 17th Century. It is the oldest complete French deck we dispose of, a copy is conserved in Paris in the French National Library and high resolution images can be found on the address http://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/btv1b105109624. The cards are numbered according the Marseille order and for the first time the Aces, the Trumps and the court cards are named. Examples corresponding to the same cards as the Catelin Geoffroy deck are shown here below.
The cards are in a similar dynamic style as the Catelin Geoffroy deck, but the images are very different. Like in our time, the artists took a great liberty in designing the cards. The same we can say for the pip cards. The Aces depict animals carrying a Flag (like in some German card games), the Coins illustrate heraldic elements, the Swords are Italian curved swords disposed in a way completely different from the Marseille Tarot and also the Batons are shown on a original way. An example here below:
The Court cards are in the same dynamic style as the Trump cards. Because an image says more than a thousand words, here below some examples:
The rare examples we have from the transition period between the Italian Trionfi decks and the French Marseille Tarot show an enormous diversity in the Tarot decks. Visually many of them are very different from the standard Italian suit cards. As in the 15th Century, the card makers still had a great liberty in the design of their decks. In France the deck structure standarized to 78 cards in a very specific order, and although this order predates the Marseille Tarot, we refer to it as the Marseille order. In Italy the regional differences in structure did not disappear. This will be explained on other pages still to create.
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